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US said its public diplomacy has paid off in Zimbabwe

The United States says its public diplomacy had paid off in bringing about democracy in Zimbabwe when the opposition Movement for Democratic Change managed to squeeze in 57 seats from the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front after nearly 20 years of one party rule.

According to a diplomatic cable dispatched in July 2000, the United States’ international visitor grants had provided a lot of exposure to Zimbabweans who had gone on to positions of national prominence.

“The list of former IV (international visitors) grantees reads like a who’s who of influential Zimbabweans. One of the most notable is Morgan Tsvangirai, the leader of the newly formed opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change,” the cable says.

It lists journalists, judges, politicians and businessmen including Econet boss Strive Masiyiwa among those who have been on the programme.

But the cable acknowledges that not everyone who has been on the programme has proven to be a distinguished defender of democracy, human rights, and free markets.

 

Full cable:

 

Viewing cable 00HARARE4057, PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

00HARARE4057

2000-07-24 12:46

2011-08-30 01:44

UNCLASSIFIED

Embassy Harare

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

 

241246Z Jul 00

 

 

UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0395

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   AMAD-00 A-00     UTED-00 TEDE-00 IO-00   LAB-01

L-00     OIC-02   PA-00   IRM-00   IAP-00   USIE-00 CRYE-00

R-00     IIP-00   DRL-02   SAS-00     /005W

——————71A7D7 241243Z /38

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6673

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 004057

 

SIPDIS

 

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

 

E.O. 12958: N/A

TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO

SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN

DEMOCRACY

 

 

1. SUMMARY: THE WIN OF 57 PARLIAMENTARY SEATS BY THE

MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE (MDC) IN THE JUNE, 2000

ELECTIONS MARKS AN IMPORTANT NEW STAGE IN THE EVOLUTION

OF ZIMBABWEAN DEMOCRACY. AFTER 20 YEARS AS A ONE-PARTY

STATE, THE RULING ZIMBABWE AFRICAN NATIONAL UNION –

PATRIOTIC FRONT (ZANU-PF) PARTY WILL NOW NEED TO

COMPETE WITH A MEANINGFUL OPPOSITION IN THE PARLIAMENT.

WHILE ZANU-PF STILL CONTROLS A PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY,

AND WILL PROBABLY BE ABLE TO PASS THE LEGISLATION IT

DESIRES (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CONSTITUTIONAL

AMENDMENTS — THOSE REQUIRE A TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY) IT

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z

MUST NOW COMPETE IN THE MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS AND

IDEOLOGIES WITH A NEW GENERATION OF POLITICAL THOUGHT.

THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A VIABLE OPPOSITION IN

ZIMBABWE WAS A COMPLEX AND LENGTHY PROCESS, AND OWES

ITS SUCCESS TO THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE. IT

IS POSSIBLE, HOWEVER, TO RELATE U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLIC

DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS TO THE GROWTH OF A POLITICAL

ENVIRONMENT AMENABLE TO DEMOCRATIC PLURALISM IN

ZIMBABWE. THIS REPORT ATTEMPTS TO OUTLINE HOW USG

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS IN ZIMBABWE HELPED TO CREATE

SOME OF THE CONDITIONS THAT LED TO BROADER PUBLIC

INVOLVEMENT IN THE NATION’S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. END

SUMMARY.

ZIMBABWE HAVE THE RIGHT TO THAT CLAIM. WE CAN,

HOWEVER, TAKE CREDIT FOR HAVING PROVIDED THE PEOPLE OF

ZIMBABWE WITH IDEAS, EXAMPLES AND SKILLS WHICH

STRENGTHENED THEIR OWN EXPRESSIONS OF SELF-

DETERMINATION. OUR PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN NON-PARTISAN,

PROVIDING INFORMATION AND AMERICAN EXPERIENCES TO

MEMBERS OF THE RULING PARTY AS WELL AS TO PEOPLE WHO

HAVE BECOME LEADERS IN THE OPPOSITION AND IN CIVIL

SOCIETY. THE NON-PARTISAN NATURE OF OUR PROGRAMS

UNDERSCORES THE NOTION THAT ONLY THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE

CAN CLAIM CREDIT FOR POLITICAL PROGRESS IN THEIR

COUNTRY. IT ALSO SUPPORTS THE NOTION THAT IDEAS AND

INFORMATION, OUR BASIC COMMODITIES, BREED POLITICAL

DEVELOPMENT.

 

3. IN THE 20 YEARS SINCE ZIMBABWE’S INDEPENDENCE, A BROAD

ARRAY OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HAS CONTRIBUTED TO

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY. THE FOLLOWING IS A

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z

PARTIAL LISTING OF PROGRAMS THAT HAVE BEEN ESPECIALLY

PRODUCTIVE. WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT AF/PD ALSO ASK

FORMER USIS OFFICERS WHO HAVE WORKED IN ZIMBABWE FOR

ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC

DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HERE.

 

4. THE MAY 2000 EMINENT PERSONS IN CONSULTATION (EPIC)

PROGRAM — THIS PROGRAM LED DIRECTLY TO THE PRODUCTION

OF CRITICAL VOTER EDUCATION MATERIAL IMMEDIATELY BEFORE

ZIMBABWE’S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. THIS AMBASSADORIAL

INITIATIVE WAS FUNDED BY USAID/ZIMBABWE AND MANAGED BY

THE EMBASSY’S PUBLIC AFFAIRS SECTION. DURING ONE OF

THE PROGRAM’S WORKSHOPS, A FLIER TO EDUCATE ZIMBABWE’S

VOTERS ABOUT THE SECRECY OF THE BALLOT WAS CONCEIVED

AND DESIGNED. WITHIN TWO WEEKS, THE LEGAL RESOURCES

FOUNDATION, A LEADING ZIMBABWEAN NGO, HAD PRODUCED ONE

MILLION COPIES OF THE FLIER. IT WAS USED AS AN INSERT

IN ALL OF THE NATION’S NEWSPAPERS AND GIVEN AWAY AT

SHOPS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. SECRECY OF THE BALLOT

WAS A MAJOR CONCERN FOR MANY VOTERS IN ZIMBABWE AND THE

TIMELY PRODUCTION OF THE FLIER WAS AN IMPORTANT MEANS

OF HELPING TO PROMOTE THE FREEST, FAIREST POSSIBLE

ELECTIONS.

5. CIVITAS PROGRAMS BETWEEN 1997 AND 1999 — THE MOST

CONCRETE RESULT OF ZIMBABWEAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE

CIVITAS INITIATIVE WAS THE DEVELOPMENT AND INCLUSION OF

CIVIC EDUCATION MATERIALS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

CURRICULA. MR. CONRAD KUONA, ONE OF

THE ZIMBABWEAN

PARTICIPANTS IN THE MAY 1997 CIVITAS CONFERENCE IN

PRETORIA, WAS NAMED TO THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION’S

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z

COMMISSION ON EDUCATION. USING THIS POSITION,

MATERIALS AND WISDOM GAINED THROUGH THE CIVITAS

PROGRAM, AND CONTINUED POST SUPPORT (INCLUDING AN

ACADEMIC SPECIALIST), MR. KUONA INTEGRATED CIVIC

EDUCATION MATERIAL INTO THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM. AS A

DIRECT RESULT OF THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, SECONDARY SCHOOL

STUDENTS THROUGHOUT ZIMBABWE NOW RECEIVE INSTRUCTION ON

CITIZENS’ BASIC CIVIC RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

 

6. THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN USIS-

ADMINISTERED GRANT FROM USAID, RESULTED IN THE 1998

CREATION OF A NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAM IN ZIMBABWE.

THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY THE PUBLICATION IN 1999 OF A BOOK

ON WHY AND HOW TO ORGANIZE NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAMS.

 

7. IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVE, BUT AVOWED BY ONE ZIMABWEAN

PARTICIPANT IN THE MAY 1997 PRETORIA CIVITAS CONFRENCE,

IS THE PROPOSITION THAT ZIMBABWE’S CONSTITUTIONAL

REFORM BEGAN THERE. VICTOR JUMO, THEN WITH THE

ZIMBABWEAN NGO “THE LEGAL RESOURCES FOUNDATION,” TELLS

 

UNCLASSIFIED

 

UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0398

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   AMAD-00 A-00     UTED-00 TEDE-00 IO-00   LAB-01

OIC-02   PA-00   IRM-00   IAP-00   USIE-00 R-00     IIP-00

DRL-02   SAS-00     /005W

——————71A7E5 241244Z /38

R 241246Z JUL 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6674

 

UNCLAS SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 004057

 

SIPDIS

 

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

 

E.O. 12958: N/A

TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO

SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN

DEMOCRACY

 

US THAT ZIMBABWEAN PARTICIPANTS IN CIVITAS ’97 WERE

INSPIRED AT THE CONFERENCE BY THEIR SOUTH AFRICAN

COUNTERPARTS’ WORK ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM. UPON

RETURNING TO ZIMBABWE, THE ZIMBABWEAN CIVITASIANS

CONVOKED A MEETING OF OTHER NGOS. THAT MEETING LED TO

THE CREATION OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY

(NCA). THE NCA’S WORK TO PROMOTE CONSTITIONAL REFORM

GALVANIZED PULIC OPINION, LED TO THE GOVERNMENT’S

CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION, AND RESULTED

IN A DRAFT CONSTITUTION IN LATE 1999. POPULAR

REJECTION OF THAT DRAFT IN THE FEBRUARY 2000 REFERENDUM

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z

GENERATED A SENSE OF POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT AMONG

ZIMBABWEAN VOTERS AND HELPED TO CREATE THE VOTER TURN-

OUT AND COURAGE WHICH ELECTED AN UNPRECEDENTED

OPPOSITION BLOCK TO PARLIAMENT IN JUNE 2000.

8. INTERNATIONAL VISITOR GRANTS HAVE PROVIDED FIRST-TIME

EXPOSURE TO THE U.S. FOR A NUMBER OF ZIMBABWEANS WHO

HAVE GONE ON TO POSITIONS OF NATIONAL PROMINENCE. THE

LIST OF FORMER IV GRANTEES READS LIKE A WHO’S WHO OF

INFLUENTIAL ZIMBABWEANS. ONE OF THE MOST NOTABLE IS

MORGAN TSVANGIRAI, THE LEADER OF THE NEWLY FORMED

OPPOSTION PARTY, THE MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE

(MDC). TSVANGIRAI PARTICIPATED IN A 1989 MULTI-

REGIONAL IV PROGRAM. OF COURSE, NOT EVERY SINGLE IV

ALUMNI HAS PROVEN TO BE A DISTINGUISHED DEFENDER OF

DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND FREE MARKETS, BUT THE

OVERALL LIST IS OVERWHELMINGLY POSITIVE. THE FOLLOWING

PARAGRAPHS OFFER A PARTIAL LISTING OF PROMINENT IV

ALUMNI.

 

9. MEDIA: “DAILY NEWS” (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION)

EDITOR IN CHIEF GEOFF NYAROTA; “DAILY NEWS” NEWS EDITOR

WILLIAM BANGO (1987); “DAILY NEWS” DEPUTY EDITOR BILL

SAIDI (1993); “STANDARD” (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION)

EDITOR IN CHIEF CLIVE WILSON; ZIANA (ZIMBABWE

ASSOCIATED NEWS AGENCY) EDITOR IN CHIEF WILF MBANGA

(1981); JOY TV DIRECTOR ISHMAEL KADUNGURE (1983);

“HERALD” (GOVERNMENT-OWNED DAILY) EDITOR IN CHIEF

BORNWELL CHAKAODZA (1998); “CHRONICLE” (GOVERNMENT-

OWNED DAILY IN BULAWAYO) EDITOR IN CHIEF STEPHEN MPOFU

(1990); “FINANCIAL GAZETTE” (INDEPENDENT, PRO-

OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR IN CHIEF TREVOR NCUBE (1990);

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z

“STANDARD” (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR

IN CHIEF MARK CHAVUNDUKA.

 

10. JUDICIARY: SUPREME COURT CHIEF JUSTICE ANTHONY GUBBAY

(1990); HIGH COURT JUDGE GODFREY CHIDYAUSIKU (1984);

HIGH COURT JUDGE PADDINGTON GARWE (1987); HIGH COURT

JUDGE FERGUS BLACKIE (1992); HIGH COURT JUDGE YUNUS

OMERJEE (1995); HIGH COURT JUDGE WILSON SANDURA (1996).

 

11. GOVERNMENT: NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER OF FINANCE NKOSANA

MOYO (EISENHOWER FELLOW IN 1995); NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER

OF JUSTICE PATRICK CHINAMASA (1983); NEW ZANU-PF

MI

NISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS JOHN NKOMO (1986); NEW ZANU-PF

MINISTER OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT

CREATION BORDER GEZI (1992); NEW ZANU-PF GOVERNOR OF

MIDLANDS PROVINCE CEPHAS MSIPA (1982); CLERK OF THE

PARLIAMENT AUSTIN ZVOMA (1983); NEW MDC MEMBER OF

PARLIAMENT MIKE AURET (1986); NEW MDC MEMBER OF

PARLIAMENT DAVID COLTART (1988); NATIONAL COMMISSIONER

OF POLICE AUGUSTINE CHIHURI (1995); NEW MDC MEMBER OF

PARLIAMENT TENDAI BITI (1999).

 

12. ACADEMICS: DR. RUKUDZO MURAPA (VICE CHANCELLOR OF

AFRICA UNIVERSITY); UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE HEAD

LIBRARIAN STANISLAUS MADE (1985).

 

13. BUSINESS: BARCLAY’S BANK MANAGING DIRECTOR ISAAC

TAKAWIRA (1989); COMMERCIAL FARMERS’ UNION DIRECTOR

DAVID HASLUCK (1980); CEO OF ECONET CELLULAR PHONE

SYSTEM STRIVE MASIYIWA (1992).

UNCLASSIFIED

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z

 

14. CIVIL SOCIETY: ZIMBABWEAN COORDINATOR FOR THE AFRICAN-

AMERICAN INSTITUTE DOREEN SIBANDA (1981); DIRECTOR OF

THE NATIONAL GALLERY PROF. GEORGE KAHARI (1981);

DIRECTOR OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DOCUMENTATION AND RESEARCH

TRUST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA PHILIAT MATSHEZA (1996);

NATIONAL COORDINATOR OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL

ASSEMBLY ISAAC MAPHOSA (1999).

 

15. LOOKING AHEAD, WE BELIEVE THAT PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

PROGRAMS IN THE NEXT TWO OR THREE YEARS CAN MAKE THE

MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS THROUGH SUPPORT FOR RULE

OF LAW (FOCUS ON STRENGTHENING THE JUDICIARY), SUPPORT

FOR CIVIL SOCIETY (FOCUS ON CIVIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS

EDUCATION), AND SUPPORT FOR THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA

(FOCUS ON LIBERALIZATION OF BROADCAST MEDIA).

 

16. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO WORK FURTHER WITH AF/PD AND OTHERS

TO REFINE AND FLESH-OUT THE HISTORY OF PD PROGRAMS IN

ZIMBABWE AND THEIR CUMULATIVE EFFECT ON THIS NATION’S

 

UNCLASSIFIED

 

UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0399

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 04057 03 OF 03 241243Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   AMAD-00 A-00     UTED-00 TEDE-00 IO-00   LAB-01

OIC-02   PA-00   IAP-00   USIE-00 R-00     IIP-00   DRL-02

SAS-00     /005W

——————71A7E7 241244Z /38

R 241246Z JUL 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6675

 

UNCLAS SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 004057

 

SIPDIS

 

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

 

E.O. 12958: N/A

TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO

SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN

DEMOCRACY

 

DEVELOPMENT.

IRVING

 

UNCLASSIFIED

 

>

(108 VIEWS)

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