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US pushed for military intervention in Zimbabwe in 2008

The United States pushed its allies to support a resolution that would have allowed military intervention in Zimbabwe by the United Nations not later than 3 July 2008.

The aim was supposedly to restore peace and stop violence in Zimbabwe because President Robert Mugabe had defied requests not to hold the presidential elections run-off on 27 June.

Movement for Democratic Change leader Morgan Tsvangirai pulled out of the run-off because of violence.

 

Full cable:

 

Viewing cable 08STATE70836, URGENT REQUEST FOR DEMARCHE ON UNSC CHAPTER VII

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

08STATE70836

2008-07-02 02:58

2011-08-30 01:44

CONFIDENTIAL

Secretary of State

VZCZCXRO8752

OO RUEHDU RUEHMR RUEHRN RUEHTRO

DE RUEHC #0836/01 1850224

ZNY CCCCC ZZH

O 020258Z JUL 08

FM SECSTATE WASHDC

TO UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE IMMEDIATE

INFO SOUTHERN AF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY COLLECTIVE IMMEDIATE

RUEHSB/AMEMBASSY HARARE IMMEDIATE 2703-2708

RUCNDT/USUN NEW YORK IMMEDIATE 2365-2370

RUEHTRO/AMEMBASSY TRIPOLI IMMEDIATE 1502

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 06 STATE 070836

 

SIPDIS

 

C O R R E C T E D C O P Y – ADDING ADDRESSEE

 

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 07/01/2018

TAGS: PREL PHUM KDEM UNSC ZI

SUBJECT: URGENT REQUEST FOR DEMARCHE ON UNSC CHAPTER VII

RESOLUTION ON ZIMBABWE

 

REF: STATE 69693

 

STATE 00070836 001.2 OF 006

 

 

Classified By: IO DAS Brian Hook, REASONS: 1.4 (B) AND (D)

 

1. (C) Action Requests:

 

(1) Action addressees in UNSC capitals should pass the text

of the draft UN Security Council resolution and annex on

Zimbabwe in para 5 below to their host governments. Action

addressees are requested to demarche host governments at an

appropriately senior level, as soon as possible, to urge

strong support for the draft resolution, drawing on the

talking points in para 3 below. Action addressees in London,

Paris, Brussels, Zagreb, and Rome should note that the

revised draft resolution incorporates comments their missions

provided to USUN during the experts-level meetings in New

York.

 

(2) USUN is instructed to table the draft resolution and

annex during informal consultations of the Security Council

on July 2, unless agreement among the P3 has not been

reached. However, irrespective of P3 agreement, the

resolution should be tabled no later than July 3. Department

and the NSC are prepared to follow up with high-level phone

calls to UNSC capitals following the introduction of the

draft resolution on July 2.

 

End Action Requests.

 

2. (U) Reporting Deadline: Posts are requested to respond

as quickly as possible by e-mail or cable slugged for

IO/UNP-Rebecca Goldenberg and USUN – Jeffrey DeLaurentis.

 

 

3. (U) Talking Points:

 

— We remain deeply concerned about the situation in

Zimbabwe following the illegitimate election on June 27, in

which the Mugabe regime used violence and intimidation to

force opposition candidate Morgan Tsvangirai ) the winner of

the March 29 election — out of the run-off election and to

prevent a free and fair election that could reflect the will

of the Zimbabwean people.

 

— In its June 23 Presidential Statement, the Security

Council spoke unanimously when it said it ®rets that the

campaign of violence and the restrictions on the political

opposition have made it impossible for a free and fair

election8 on June 27. The Council also said that &any

government of Zimbabwe must take account of the interests of

all its citizens8 and that the &results of the 29 March

2008 elections must be respected.8 It further expressed its

concern over the impact of the situation in Zimbabwe on the

wider region.

 

— Despite the Council,s clear statement, and despite

similar public statements by regional leaders, Mr. Mugabe

still proceeded with the sham run off election. Deputy

Secretary General Migiro said at the African Union Summit

that Zimbabwe was the ‘single greatest challenge to regional

stability in Southern Africa.’ The Security Council cannot

remain silent now. We must continue to speak with one voice

on the need for Mr. Mugabe to immediately end the violence

and begin a dialogue with the opposition and respect the will

of the people, as reflected in the March 29 results. We must

also back up our words with concrete measures that will move

the regime to end its campaign of violence and act

responsibly in the interests of all Zimbabweans, and of

neighboring countries.

 

— We would like to engage with your mission in New York on a

draft Security Council resolution to address the continuing

violence, the flawed electoral process, and the growing

humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe that is increasingly

destabilizing the region.

 

— This draft resolution reiterates the views expressed by

the Southern African Development Community, Pan-African

Parliament, and African Union Observer missions to Zimbabwe,

which concluded that the politically motivated violence,

 

STATE 00070836 002.2 OF 006

 

 

intimidation and displacement in the run up to the June 27

election made it impossible to conduct elections that were

free, fair and credible.

 

— Our draft resolution demands that the Government of

Zimbabwe stop all violence, and begin a political dialogue

with the opposition aimed at putting in place a solution that

respects the results of the March 29 election. It also

imposes an arms embargo and provides for an asset freeze and

travel ban against designated individuals who are responsible

for inciting or committing acts of politically motivated

violence.

 

— We will table the resolution during informal consultations

on July 2 and hope for quick Council action to send the

strongest possible signal to Mr. Mugabe on the need to end

the violence and begin a serious dialogue with the opposition

to end the crisis that threatens Zimbabwe and the region.

 

4. Draft Resolution on Zimbabwe

 

The Security Council,

 

Affirming its commitment to the independence and territorial

integrity of Zimbabwe,

 

Recalling the statement of its President of 23 June 2008

concerning the situation in Zimbabwe (S/PRST/2008/23),

 

Recalling the AU resolution on Zimbabwe of 1 July 2008 which

expressed its concern with the loss of life and violence in

Zimbabwe, the need to prevent a worsening of the situation to

avoid the spread of the conflict across the sub-region, the

need to create an environment conducive for democracy, and

encouraged Zimbabwean leaders to initiate dialogue with a

view to promoting peace and stability,

 

Recalling the statements of the Southern African Development

Community, Pan-African Parliament, and African Union Observer

missions to Zimbabwe on 29 June 2008, which found that the

elections fell short of accepted AU standards, did not give

rise to free, fair or credible elections, and did not reflect

the will of the Zimbabwean people,

 

Expressing deep concern at the gross irregularities during

the June 27 Presidential election, the violence and

intimidation perpetrated in the run up to the election that

made impossible the holding of free and fair elections, and

the creation of an environment that did not permit

international election observers to operate freely before and

during the June 27 vote,

 

Expressing strong concern over the grave humanitarian

situation in Zimbabwe which has been exacerbated by the

Government of Zimbabwe’s misuse of food aid as a political

tool and its suspension of humanitarian relief programs,

in particular the suspension of medical assistance to

HIV/AIDS patients, conducted by international and

non-governmental organizations,

 

Expressing strong concern over the impact of this suspension,

which is depriving the Zimbabwean people, in particular

vulnerable people, including those displaced by violence and

children and orphans, of basic

humanitarian assistance,

 

Condemning the continued killing, beating and torture of

civilians, sexual violence, and the displacement of thousands

of Zimbabweans, many of whom have been driven to take refuge

in neighboring countries,

 

Condemning also the baseless arrests, restrictions on the

right of assembly, seizure of vehicles, threats, intimidation

and violence directed against supporters of the opposition

political party, as well as the repeated detention of its

leaders,

 

Taking note of the statements and expressions of concern by

African regional organizations and current and former Heads

of State about the impact of the situation in Zimbabwe on the

stability of the wider region, and expressing their own grave

concern over that impact, calling on the Government of

Zimbabwe to postpone the election, and deeming the results of

a June 27 to be illegitimate under current conditions,

 

Recognizing that the destabilizing impact of the situation in

Zimbabwe on the wider region is reflected in the burden

placed on States in the region by the presence of Zimbabwean

 

STATE 00070836 003.2 OF 006

 

 

economic migrants and refugees,

 

Recalling its resolution 1809 (2008) on Peace and Security in

Africa, and reaffirming its support for Southern African

Development Community and African Union efforts to resolve

the crisis in Zimbabwe in such a way that reflects the will

of the Zimbabwean people as expressed in the March 29

elections, and calling on the

Government of Zimbabwe to cooperate with these efforts,

 

Reaffirming its support for the good offices mission of the

Secretary General, led by Assistant Secretary General Haile

Menkerios, and expressing strong support for the continuing

efforts of the Secretary General and his

representatives,

 

Determining that the situation in Zimbabwe poses a threat to

international peace and security in the region,

 

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

 

1.     Condemns the decision of the Government of Zimbabwe

to go forward with the June 27 elections given the campaign

of violence against the political opposition, which has

resulted in scores of deaths, thousands of injuries, and

displacement of thousands of civilians, making it impossible

for a free and fair election to occur;

 

2.     Demands that the Government of Zimbabwe:

 

(a) Immediately cease attacks against and intimidation of

opposition members and supporters, including those by

non-government agents affiliated with the ZANU-PF party, and

in particular end the abuse of human rights, including

widespread beatings, torture, killings, sexual violence, and

displacement, and release all political prisoners;

 

(b) Begin without delay a substantive political dialogue

between the parties with the aim of arriving at a peaceful

solution that reflects the will of the Zimbabwean people as

expressed in the March 29 elections;

 

(c) Accept the good offices offered by the African Union, the

Southern African Development Community, and the Secretary

General, giving such representatives full access to the

country, security, and all requested authority over

negotiation processes;

 

(d) Accept responsibility to cooperate fully with

investigations of the political violence experienced by the

country between March and June, 2008;

 

(e) End immediately all restrictions on international

humanitarian assistance and support international aid

organizations’ access to all parts of the country for

distribution of food, medical assistance, and other

humanitarian aid;

 

3. Requests the Secretary General to appoint as soon as

possible an individual of international standing and

expertise in human rights to serve as a Special

Representative of the Secretary General on the situation of

human rights in Zimbabwe who would, in this capacity,

investigate reports of recent and ongoing human rights

violations in Zimbabwe;

 

4. Decides that all Member States shall take the necessary

measures to prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale or

transfer to Zimbabwe, through their territories or by their

nationals, or using their flag vessels or aircraft,

and whether or not originating in their territories, of arms

or related material of all types, including weapons and

ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary

equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned;

 

5. Decides also that all Member States shall also take the

necessary measures to prevent any provision to Zimbabwe by

their nationals or from their territories of technical

assistance or training, financial assistance,

investment, brokering or other services, and the transfer of

financial resources or services, related to the supply, sale,

transfer, manufacture or use of the items specified in

paragraph 3 above;

 

6. Decides further that the measures imposed by paragraphs 3

and 4 above shall not apply to:

 

(a) Supplies of non-lethal military equipment intended solely

 

STATE 00070836 004.2 OF 006

 

 

for humanitarian or protective use, and related technical

assistance or training; and

 

(b) Supplies of protective clothing, including flak jackets

and military helmets, for the personal use of United Nations

personnel, representatives of the media and humanitarian and

development workers and associated personnel;

 

7. Decides that all States shall take the following measures

with respect to individuals and entities designated in the

Annex to this resolution or designated by the Committee as

having engaged in or provided support

for actions or policies to undermine democratic processes or

institutions in Zimbabwe, including having ordered, planned,

or participated in acts of politically motivated violence, or

as providing support to individuals or

entities designated pursuant to this paragraph:

 

(a)     prevent the entry into or transit through their

territories of these individuals, provided that nothing in

this paragraph shall obligate a State to refuse entry into or

require departure from its territory of its own

nationals;

 

(b)     freeze without delay all funds, other financial

assets and economic resources that are in their territories

on the date of adoption of this resolution or at any time

thereafter, that are owned or controlled,

directly or indirectly, by these individuals or entities, or

that are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by

entities owned or controlled by them such persons or by

individuals or entities acting on their behalf or at their

direction, and ensure that no funds, other financial assets

or economic resources are made available by their nationals

or by any persons within their territories to or for the

benefit of such individuals or entities;

 

8. Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 7(a) above

do not apply where the Committee determines on a case by case

basis that such travel is justified on the ground of

humanitarian need, including religious obligation, or where

the Committee concludes that an exemption would otherwise

further the objectives of this resolution;

 

9. Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 7(b) of

this resolution do not apply to funds, other financial assets

or economic resources that have been determined by relevant

States:

 

(a) to be necessary for basic expenses, including payment for

foodstuffs, rent or mortgage, medicines and medical

treatment, taxes, insurance premiums, and public utility

charges or exclusively for payment of reasonable professional

fees and reimbursement of incurred expenses associated with

the provision of legal services, or fees or service charges,

in accordance with national laws, for routine holding or

maintenance of frozen funds, other financial assets and

economic resources, after notification by the relevant States

to the Committee of the intention to authorize, where

appropriate, access to such funds, other financial assets or

economic resources and in the absence of a negative decision

by the Committee within three working days of such

notification;

 

(b) to be necessary for extraordinary expenses, provided that

such determination has been notified by the relevant States

to the Committee and has been approved by the Committee; or

 

(c) to be the subject of a judicial, administrative or

arbitral lien or judgment, in which case the funds, or other

financial assets and economic resources may be used to

satisfy that lien or judgment provided that the lien or

judgment was entered prior to the date of the present

resolution, is not for the benefit of a person or entity

designated by the Committee pursuant to paragraph 6 above,

and has been notified by the relevant States to the

Committee;

 

10. Decides to establish, in accordance with rule 28 of its

provisional rules of procedure, a Committee of the Security

Council consisting of all the members of the Council, to

undertake the following tasks:

 

(a) to seek from all States, in particular those in the

region, information regarding the actions taken by them to

implement effectively the measures referred to in paragraphs

4, 5 and 7 of this resolution and whatever

further information it may consider useful in this regard;

 

STATE 00070836 005.2 OF 006

 

 

(b) to examine and take appropriate action on information

regarding alleged violations of measures imposed by

paragraphs 4, 5 and 7 of this resolution;

 

(c) to designate individuals and entities subject to the

measures imposed by paragraph 6 of this resolution;

 

(d) to consider and decide upon requests for exemptions set

out in paragraphs 8 and 9 of this resolution;

 

(e) to establish guidelines as may be necessary to facilitate

the implementation of the measures imposed by this resolution;

 

(f) to report at least every 90 days to the Security Council

on its work and on the implementation of this resolution,

with its observations and recommendations, in particular on

ways to strengthen the effectiveness of the

measures imposed in this resolution;

 

(g) to assess reports from the Panel of Experts established

pursuant to paragraph 10 below, and from Member States on

specific steps they are taking to implement the measures

imposed by paragraphs 4, 5 and 7 above;

 

(h) to encourage a dialogue between the Committee and

interested Member States, in particular those in the region,

including by inviting representatives of such States to meet

with the Committee to discuss implementation of the measures;

 

11. Requests the Secretary-General to establish, within 30

days of the adoption of this resolution, in consultation with

the Committee, for a period of twelve months a Panel of

Experts comprised of four members with the range of expertise

necessary to fulfill the Panel’s mandate described in this

paragraph, to operate under the direction of the Committee to

undertake the following tasks:

 

(a) to assist the Committee in monitoring implementation of

the measures in paragraphs 4, 5 and 7 of this resolution, and

to make recommendations to the Committee on actions the

Council may want to consider; and

 

(b) to provide a mid-term briefing on its work to the

Committee, and an interim report no later than 90 days after

adoption of this resolution, and a final report no later than

30 days prior to the termination of its mandate

to the Council through the Committee with its finding and

recommendations;

 

12. Expresses its readiness to review the measures imposed

in paragraphs 4, 5, and 7 of this resolution in 12 months

following the date of adoption of this resolution or sooner

if before such time as a political settlement is

agreed to by all stakeholders and respects the will of the

Zimbabwean people as expressed in the results of the March

29, 2008 elections;

 

13. Requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to the

Council regarding the situation in Zimbabwe, whether the

Government of Zimbabwe has complied with the demands in

paragraph 2 above, and what additional measures may

contribute to improving the security, humanitarian, and human

rights situation in Zimbabwe;

 

14. Decides that all States shall report to the Committee

established by the Council within 90 days of the adoption of

this resolution on the steps they have taken with a view to

implementing effectively the measures imposed in paragraphs

4, 5 and 7 above;

 

15. Decides to remain seized of the matter.

 

Annex

1.   Mugabe, Robert

(Member/Head of Government responsible for activities that

seriously undermine democracy, repress human rights and

disrespect the rule of law)

2.   Chiwenga, Constantine

(Member of security forces who directed repressive state

policy and has violated human rights)

3.   Mnangagwa, Emmerson

(Member of Government responsible for activities that

seriously undermine democracy, repress human rights and

disrespect the rule of law)

4.   Gono, Gideon

(Reserve Bank Governor who is responsible for funding

repressive state policies)

 

STATE 00070836 006.2 OF 006

 

 

5.   Chihuri, Augustine

(Member of security forces who bears wide responsibility for

serious violations of the freedom of peaceful assembly)

6.   Chinamasa, Patrick

(Member of Government responsible for activities that

seriously undermine democracy, repress human rights and

disrespect the rule of law)

7.   Shiri, Perence

(Member of security forces complicit in forming or directing

oppressive state policy)

8.   Parirenyatwa, David

(Member of Government responsible for activities that

seriously undermine democracy, repress human rights and

disrespect the rule of law)

9.   Mutasa, Didymus

(Member of Government responsible for activities that

seriously undermine democracy, repress human rights and

disrespect the rule of law)

10.   Charamba, George

(Member of Government complicit in forming or directing

oppressive state policy)

11.   Zimondi, Paradzi

(Member of security forces complicit in forming oppressive

state policy)

12.   Bonyongwe, Happyton

(Member of security forces complicit in forming or directing

oppressive state policy)

5. Tripoli minimize considered.

RICE

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