Fast-track land reform divides white farmers

The concerted fast-track land reform that the government had embarked on since 2000 had divided white farmers by February 2001 with some arguing that they should work with the government to break the impasse while others said the government was not interested in any compromise because as far as the government was concerned land was political.

According to one of the cables released by Wikileaks former Commercial Farmers Union President Nick Swanepoel wrote to the government on 9 February 2001 offering to make changes at the CFU in order to break the impasse.

The offer included:

  • Changing the name and leadership of the CFU
  • Assuring that the CFU would be strictly apolitical
  • Accepting the government requirement of 5 million hectares of commercial farmland for resettlement
  • Dropping all lawsuits against the government over "fast-track"
  • Assuring cooperation of commercial farmers in assisting resettled people to be successful as farmers, and
  • Lobbying donors to release funds to support "fast-track"

Local Government Minister Ignatius Chombo wrote to Vice-President Joseph Msika that Swanepoel’s letter could be just another diversionary tactic of the commercial farmers.

Msika concurred but told Chombo to acknowledge the letter and indicate that before the government could seriously consider the offer they expected concrete action on changing the name and leadership of the CFU, dropping all lawsuits against the government and lobbying donors to release funds for land reform.

 

Full cable:


Viewing cable 01HARARE815, ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS UNION TO HOLD

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

01HARARE815

2001-02-23 11:07

2011-08-30 01:44

CONFIDENTIAL

Embassy Harare

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

 

231107Z Feb 01

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ2767

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 00815 01 OF 03 231109Z

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ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 BBG-00

PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00

/009W

------------------C95CBC 231109Z /38

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 8280

INFO NSC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 000815

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JFRAZER

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BWILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD - DWELLER, AFR/SA - CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR - VDICKSON-HORTON

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 02/23/11

TAGS: EAGR PGOV PHUM EAID ZI

SUBJECT: ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS UNION TO HOLD

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 00815 01 OF 03 231109Z

SPECIAL CONGRESS OVER LAND REFORM AND ITS FUTURE PATH

 

CLASSIFIED BY CHARGE D' AFFAIRES EARL M. IRVING FOR

REASONS 1.5 (B/C/D).

 

REF: HARARE 743

 

-------

SUMMARY

-------

 

1. (C) ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS UNION (CFU)

ANNOUNCED FEBRUARY 15 THAT IT WILL HOLD A SPECIAL

CONGRESS ON MARCH 21 TO EXAMINE WAYS TO RE-ENGAGE THE

GOVERNMENT OF ZIMBABWE (GOZ) ON THE LAND ISSUE. AN

INDEPENDENT APPROACH TO THE GOZ ON THE LAND ISSUE BY A

FORMER CFU PRESIDENT WAS SLAPPED BACK WITH HARDLY

MEASURED DISDAIN. THE GOZ RESPONSE IN THE PRESS IS THAT

IT WOULD ONLY TALK TO INDIVIDUAL COMMERCIAL FARMERS, NOT

THE CFU, WHOSE ONLY GOAL IS TO FRUSTRATE THE "FAST-

TRACK" LAND REFORM AND RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM. THE

MINISTER OF LANDS, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL RESETTLEMENT,

JOSEPH MADE, RECENTLY ANNOUNCED THAT THE GOZ HAD

GAZETTED ANOTHER 33 COMMERCIAL FARMS FOR COMPULSORY

ACQUISITION, AND THAT THE 5 MILLION HECTARES OF LAND

PREVIOUSLY TARGETED UNDER "FAST-TRACK" IS ONLY A

"MINIMUM" QUANTITY NEEDED FOR THE PROGRAM, ALTHOUGH NO

NEW TARGET HAS BEEN ANNOUNCED. MEANWHILE, TENSIONS

CONTINUE TO SIMMER ON ZIMBABWE'S OCCUPIED COMMERCIAL

FARMS, WITH TWO INCIDENTS IN THE LAST WEEK INVOLVING THE

SHOOTING OF OCCUPIERS BY FARM GUARDS. END SUMMARY.

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 00815 01 OF 03 231109Z

 

-------------------------------

CFU TO CONVENE SPECIAL CONGRESS

-------------------------------

 

2. (U) THE PRESIDENT OF ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS

UNION (CFU), TIM HENWOOD, ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 15 THAT

THE CFU WOULD HOLD A SPECIAL CONGRESS ON MARCH 21 TO TRY

AND FIND A WAY TO RE-ENGAGE THE GOVERNMENT OF ZIMBABWE

(GOZ) ON LAND REFORM. THE CONGRESS WILL ALSO DECIDE ON

POSSIBLE CHANGES IN THE CFU'S NATIONAL LEADERSHIP. THIS

ANNOUNCEMENT FOLLOWED A CONTENTIOUS MEETING OF THE CFU'S

25-MEMBER COUNCIL ON FEBRUARY 13, AT WHICH DIVISIONS

EMERGED REGARDING A CONSENSUS APPROACH TO THE GOZ'S

"FAST-TRACK" RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM. THE GOZ-CONTROLLED

"THE HERALD" NEWSPAPER REPORTED ON FEBRUARY 17 THAT SOME

COUNCIL MEMBERS, INCLUDING PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE CFU,

BLAMED THE CURRENT CFU NATIONAL LEADERSHIP FOR THE

BREAKDOWN IN DIALOGUE WITH THE GOZ. THESE COUNCIL

MEMBERS REPORTEDLY WANT THE CFU TO ENDORSE THE "FAST-

TRACK" PROGRAM AND WORK WITH THE GOZ TO SEE THAT THE

PROGRAM SUCCEEDS.

 

3. (C) ON FEBRUARY 21, ECONOFF SPOKE WITH RICHARD AMYOT,

CFU DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR COMMODITIES, REGARDING THE

UPCOMING SPECIAL CONGRESS. AMYOT SAID THAT THE GOZ-

CONTROLLED PRESS ACCOUNT OF A STORMY CFU COUNCIL MEETING

WAS AN EXAGGERATION. ACCORDING TO AMYOT, THERE WAS NO

"BLOOD ON THE WALLS" AFTERWARDS. AMYOT SAID THE COUNCIL

MEETING WAS TRIGGERED BY BEHIND-THE-SCENES PRESSURE FROM

GOZ MINISTERS INVOLVED IN "FAST-TRACK" (MINISTER OF

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 00815 01 OF 03 231109Z

LOCAL GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC WORKS AND NATIONAL HOUSING,

IGNATIUS CHOMBO, MINISTER OF LANDS, AGRICULTURE AND

RURAL RESETTLEMENT, JOSEPH MADE, AND MINISTER OF RURAL

RESOURCES AND WATER DEVELOPMENT, JOYCE MUJURU), AND

PRESIDENT MUGABE HIMSELF, TO REMOVE CFU PRESIDENT TIM

HENWOOD, AND DIRECTOR DAVID HASLUCK. AMYOT WAS ADAMANT

THAT THE CFU WOULD NOT BE COWED BY THE GOZ, AND MADE

CLEAR THAT THE CFU ELECTS ITS OWN LEADERSHIP IN A

DEMOCRATIC FASHION. THE SPECIAL CONGRESS, ACCORDING TO

AMYOT, WILL CONSIDER WAYS TO RE-ENGAGE THE GOZ ON THE

LAND ISSUE, AND WILL DECIDE WHETHER TO CHANGE ITS

CURRENT NATIONAL LEADERSHIP. HE ADDED THAT HE IS NOT

SURE OF THE BENEFITS OF A SPECIAL CONGRESS, SINCE THE

GOZ AND ZANU-PF ARE TREATING LAND AS A POLITICAL ISSUE

AND DO NOT APPEAR INTERESTED IN ACHIEVING A

COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION THROUGH A REASONED DIALOGUE AMONG

ALL STAKEHOLDERS.

 

-------------------------------------

THE GOZ REJECTS DIALOGUE WITH THE CFU

-------------------------------------

 

4. (C) THE GOZ CONTINUES TO REJECT PUBLICLY ANY DIALOGUE

WITH THE CFU. MINISTER CHOMBO, WHO CHAIRS THE INTER-

MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE ON LAND ACQUISITION, TOLD

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ2768

 

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NSAE-00 OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00

ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 BBG-00

PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00

/009W

------------------C95CC7 231110Z /38

R 231107Z FEB 01

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 8281

INFO NSC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 000815

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JFRAZER

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BWILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD - DWELLER, AFR/SA - CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR - VDICKSON-HORTON

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 02/23/11

TAGS: EAGR PGOV PHUM EAID ZI

SUBJECT: ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS UNION TO HOLD

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 00815 02 OF 03 231109Z

SPECIAL CONGRESS OVER LAND REFORM AND ITS FUTURE PATH

 

JOURNALISTS ON FEBRUARY 19 THAT THE GOZ "WILL HAVE

DIALOGUE WITH THE FARMERS BECAUSE THEY ARE THE ONES WHO

HAVE THE LAND AND NOT THE CFU. THE CFU HAS BEEN USING

FOREIGN FUNDING TO FIGHT GOVERNMENT'S PROGRAM, INCLUDING

LAND REFORM. HOW THEN ARE WE EXPECTED TO ENTER INTO

DIALOGUE WITH THE UNION?" HE ADDED THAT "IT WAS CLEAR

THAT THE CFU WAS NO LONGER SPEAKING FOR FARMERS BUT HAD

TURNED INTO A POLITICAL GROUP AND THAT THE GOVERNMENT IS

CONSIDERING DE-REGISTERING THE UNION FOR ITS NEFARIOUS

ACTIVITIES." (COMMENT: THIS APPEARS TO BE A CLASSIC

EXAMPLE OF ZANU-PF USING THEIR "DIVIDE AND CONQUER"

STRATEGY BY ENCOURAGING DISSENT AMONG THE COMMECIAL

FARMERS.) MINISTER CHOMBO ALSO DISMISSED A PRIVATE

SECTOR INITIATIVE UNDERTAKEN BY VARIOUS ZIMBABWEAN

BUSINESS PEOPLE AND COMMERCIAL FARMERS AS AN ALTERNATIVE

TO THE COMPULSORY ACQUISITION MODEL OF "FAST-TRACK"

(REFTEL). REGARDING THE PEOPLE BEHIND THIS INITIATIVE,

CHOMBO SAID, "THESE ARE PEOPLE WHO ARE LOOKING FOR

BUSINESS. WHERE HAVE THEY BEEN ALL THESE YEARS?"

 

5. (C) POST OBTAINED FROM CONFIDENTIAL SOURCES THREE

DOCUMENTS RELATED TO COMMERCIAL FARMERS' EFFORTS TO

ENGAGE THE GOZ ANEW ON LAND REFORM. THE FIRST IS A

LETTER, DATED FEBRUARY 9, LABELED "SECRET" BY THE

WRITER, FROM NICK SWANEPOEL, A FORMER CFU PRESIDENT, TO

MINISTER CHOMBO, OFFERING TO MAKE CHANGES AT THE CFU IN

ORDER TO BREAK THE IMPASSE ON LAND. THIS OFFER

INCLUDES:

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 00815 02 OF 03 231109Z

= 1. CHANGING THE NAME AND LEADERSHIP OF THE CFU

 

= 2. ASSURING THAT THE CFU WOULD BE STRICTLY APOLITICAL

 

= 3. ACCEPTING THE GOZ REQUIREMENT OF 5 MILLION

HECTARES OF COMMERCIAL FARMLAND FOR RESETTLEMENT

 

= 4. DROPPING ALL LAWSUITS AGAINST THE GOZ OVER

"FAST-TRACK"

 

= 5. ASSURING COOPERATION OF COMMERCIAL FARMERS IN

ASSISTING RESETTLED PEOPLE TO BE SUCCESSFUL AS

FARMERS, AND

 

= 6. LOBBYING DONORS TO RELEASE FUNDS TO SUPPORT

"FAST-TRACK"

 

6. (C) THE SECOND DOCUMENT IS A LETTER FROM MINISTER

CHOMBO, DATED FEBRUARY 13, TO VICE PRESIDENT MSIKA

REGARDING THE SWANEPOEL LETTER, IN WHICH CHOMBO STATES

THAT HE VIEWS THE SWANEPOEL OFFER AS LIKELY BEING JUST

ANOTHER DIVERSIONARY TACTIC OF THE COMMERCIAL FARMERS.

THE THIRD DOCUMENT IS A LETTER FROM MSIKA TO CHOMBO,

DATED FEBRUARY 19, IN WHICH MSIKA AGREES THAT THE

SWANEPOEL OFFER COULD BE A DIVERSIONARY TACTIC, BUT THAT

CHOMBO SHOULD ACKNOWLEDGE THE LETTER AND INDICATE THAT

BEFORE THE GOZ WILL SERIOUSLY CONSIDER THE OFFER THEY

EXPECT CONCRETE ACTION ON THE FIRST, FOURTH, AND SIXTH

ITEMS OF THE PROPOSAL. WE BELIEVE THAT THE "SECRET"

LETTER FROM SWANEPOEL TO CHOMBO IS WHAT LED TO THE CFU

FULL COUNCIL MEETING ON FEBRUARY 13, AND THE SUBSEQUENT

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 00815 02 OF 03 231109Z

DECISION BY HENWOOD TO CALL A CFU SPECIAL CONGRESS FOR

MARCH 21.

 

7. (U) HENWOOD REITERATED IN HIS FEBRUARY 15 PRESS

RELEASE ANNOUNCING THE UPCOMING SPECIAL CONGRESS THAT,

"THE CFU IS A POLITICALLY NON-PARTISAN ORGANIZATION WITH

A MANDATE TO REPRESENT THE INTERESTS OF ITS MEMBERS AND

TO WORK WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DAY." AMYOT CLAIMED

TO US THAT THE CFU RECEIVES NO FOREIGN FUNDING OF ANY

KIND. HE SAID THE CFU'S FUNDING IS DERIVED FROM FARMERS

MEMBERSHIP FEES AND COMMODITY ASSOCIATION LEVIES ON

FARMERS SALES OF PRODUCE. AMYOT ADDED THAT WHILE THE

SPECIAL CONGRESS WOULD EXAMINE HOW TO RE-ENGAGE

CONSTRUCTIVELY WITH THE GOZ, THE CFU WAS ALSO URGING

INDIVIDUAL FARMERS TO MAKE THE SAME EFFORTS IN THEIR

DISTRICTS AND PROVINCES.

 

---------------------------

THE GOZ GAZETTES MORE FARMS

---------------------------

 

8. (C) THE GOZ CONTINUES TO GAZETTE FARMS FOR COMPULSORY

ACQUISITION, EVEN THOUGH IT HAS ALREADY GAZETTED FARMS

WITH A TOTAL HECTARAGE IN EXCESS OF FIVE MILLION

HECTARES, THE AMOUNT IT PREVIOUSLY INDICATED WAS NEEDED

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ2770

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 00815 03 OF 03 231110Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AGRE-00 AID-00   AMAD-00 CIAE-00 COME-00

DODE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00   FRB-00

H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00   IO-00   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01

NSAE-00 OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00

ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 BBG-00

PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00

/009W

------------------C95CD6 231110Z /38

R 231107Z FEB 01

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC 8282

INFO NSC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 000815

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JFRAZER

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BWILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD - DWELLER, AFR/SA - CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR - VDICKSON-HORTON

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 02/23/11

TAGS: EAGR PGOV PHUM EAID ZI

SUBJECT: ZIMBABWE'S COMMERCIAL FARMERS UNION TO HOLD

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 00815 03 OF 03 231110Z

SPECIAL CONGRESS OVER LAND REFORM AND ITS FUTURE PATH

 

FOR RESETTLEMENT.   LANDS, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL

RESOURCES MINISTER JOSEPH MADE ANNOUNCED RECENTLY THAT

THE GOZ HAD GAZETTED ANOTHER 33 COMMERCIAL FARMS,

BRINGING THE TOTAL NUMBER GAZETTED TO MORE THAN 2700.

ACCORDING TO MADE, DUE TO THE "INCREASING DEMAND" OF

ZIMBABWEANS FOR LAND UNDER PHASE II OF "FAST-TRACK",

"THE ACQUISITION OF FIVE MILLION HECTARES IS A MINIMUM

THAT WE (THE GOZ) SET AS A REQUIREMENT. NOW THAT WE

HAVE THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE FURTHER INDICATING THAT THEY

REQUIRE LAND, WE ARE GOING TO CONTINUE ACQUIRING MORE

UNDERUTILIZED LAND WHICH WE THINK IS IN EXCESS OF FIVE

MILLION HECTARES." (COMMENT: MADE'S STATEMENT THAT 5

MILLION HECTARES IS NOW ONLY THE MINIMUM AMOUNT THAT THE

GOZ REQUIRES FOR RESETTLEMENT TRACKS WITH OTHER SOURCES

CLAIMS THAT THE 5 MILLION HECTARE TARGET HAS BEEN

INCREASED. WE BELIEVE THIS PROVIDES FURTHER

CONFIRMATION THAT THE GOZ INTENDS TO USE PHASE II OF

"FAST-TRACK" FOR POLITICAL PURPOSES. THE SCENARIO IS

THAT THE GOZ WILL PROMISE LAND FOR COMMERCIAL FARMING TO

THE ZIMBABWE MASSES IN RETURN FOR THEIR VOTES FOR MUGABE

IN THE UPCOMING PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. AFTER THE

ELECTION, WE EXPECT THE GOZ TO CONVENIENTLY DETERMINE

THAT MOST PEOPLE WHO APPLIED UNDER PHASE II WILL NOT

QUALIFY FOR LAND. END COMMENT)

 

-----------------------------------

TENSIONS CONTINUE ON OCCUPIED FARMS

-----------------------------------

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 00815 03 OF 03 231110Z

9. (U) TENSIONS CONTINUE TO SIMMER ON OCCUPIED

COMMERCIAL FARMS, AS REVEALED BY TWO RECENT INCIDENTS IN

MASVINGO PROVINCE. ON FEBRUARY 13, FARM GUARDS OPENED

FIRE ON A GROUP OF SQUATTERS, WOUNDING SEVEN. TWO DAYS

LATER, FARM GUARDS ON A DIFFERENT FARM OPENED FIRE ON

SQUATTERS, WOUNDING THREE. ECONOFF ASKED AMYOT, OF THE

CFU, WHETHER HE THOUGHT THAT THESE WERE ISOLATED EVENTS

OR INDICATED A TREND. HE REPLIED THAT TENSIONS WERE

HIGH ON OCCUPIED FARMS, AND THAT FARM OCCUPIERS IN

MASVINGO PROVINCE, ESPECIALLY THE "WAR VETS", HAVE BEEN

PARTICULARLY AGGRESSIVE BECAUSE OF THE ENCOURAGEMENT

THEY HAVE RECEIVED FROM THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR JOSIAH

HUNGWE. ACCORDING TO AMYOT, THE FARM GUARDS HAD

PROBABLY JUST REACHED THE BREAKING POINT AND DECIDED TO

RESPOND TO THE UNENDING INTIMIDATION WITH FORCE.

 

-------

COMMENT

-------

 

10. (C) AT FIRST GLANCE, A CHANGE IN CFU LEADERSHIP AND

DIRECTION WOULD APPEAR TO PROVIDE THE GOZ WITH SOME ROOM

TO MANEUVER OUT OF THE CORNER IT HAS PLACED ITSELF IN

WITH THE "FAST-TRACK" PROGRAM. HOWEVER, WE ARE

SKEPTICAL THAT A CHANGE IN THE CFU NATIONAL LEADERSHIP,

OR AN OFFER BY THE CFU TO WORK WITH THE GOZ TO MAKE

"FAST-TRACK" SUCCESSFUL, WILL END THE CURRENT IMPASSE.

IT IS CLEAR THAT THE GOZ AND ZANU-PF ARE MANIPULATING

THE LAND ISSUE FOR POLITICAL ENDS, AND ARE NOT SERIOUSLY

INTERESTED IN ADDRESSING THE INEQUITABLE OWNERSHIP OF

LAND IN ZIMBABWE. THE EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 00815 03 OF 03 231110Z

CHOMBO AND MSIKA SUGGEST THAT THE GOZ IS DETERMINED TO

CONTINUE WITH THE "FAST-TRACK" PROGRAM, REGARDLESS OF

ITS OBVIOUS SHORTFALLS, IN THE BELIEF THAT IT WILL

RESONATE WITH ZIMBABWE'S POOR MASSES AND INCREASE THE

CHANCES OF VICTORY IN THE UPCOMING PRESIDENTIAL

ELECTION. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CFU AS A VIABLE

ORGANIZATION AS A RESULT OF "FAST-TRACK" WOULD BE AN

ADDED BENEFIT, AND THUS WE NOW SEE THE GOZ AND ZANU-PF

USING THEIR "DIVIDE AND CONQUER" STRATEGY TO TRY TO

BREAK UP THE CFU. END COMMENT

 

IRVING

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

>

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